Wednesday , April 25 2018

OSPF network types

In the era of ethernet transport technology we cannot forget about older, but still widely used ATM and FR technologies. Taking OSPF into consideration, it classifies networks based on link layers protocols. That’s why we have such terms like:

  • broadcast
  • non-broadcast multiple access NBMA
  • point-to-mulitpoint P2MP
  • point-to-point P2P.

Broadcast

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file system of Huawei NE40E

How to manage storage devices, directories and files on Huawei’s equipment?

I will try to introduce the file system based on NE40E routers.

NE40E, as most of carrier class Huawei’s devices, has two MPU boards. Each board is equipped with two CFcards. The first CFcard, inside the board, is used for storing software and configuration’s files. The second one, at the front panel of the board, stores log files. Some of Huawei’s devices use flash memory to store all necessary files.

The file system manages files and directories in the storage device by creating, deleting, modifying, renaming files or directories and displaying contents of the files.

Let’s do an example:

  1. Create labnario and huawei directories in CFcard.
  2. Copy log.log file from CFcard2 to labnario directory.
  3. Display this file.
  4. Rename this file with old_log.log.
  5. Compress it.
  6. Move old_log.log.zip file to huawei directory of the same CFcard.
  7. Delete this file from huawei directory.
  8. Restore the deleted file.
  9. Delete this file permanently.
  10. Delete huawei directory.

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from Huawei CLI – reset saved-configuration

reset saved-configuration

If you need to reconfigure a Huawei device and do not want to delete its configuration line by line, it is the fastest way to restore the device to the default configuration. Reset saved-configuration command does not delete the existing configuration file in storage device. It is required to restart the device to activate changes. Before reboot, the device compares the configuration file to be loaded at the next startup and existing file to be deleted. Finally the device:

  • loads the default configuration if both files are the same
  • deletes the configuration file in use if they are different
  • displays a message indicating that the configuration file does not exist if the configuration file to be deleted does not exist
<labnario> reset saved-configuration
The action will delete the saved configuration in the device.
The configuration will be erased to reconfigure. Continue? [Y/N]: y

Which configuration file is set as the “next startup saved-configuration file” you can check by the following command:

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disabling Huawei S3300 notification record

In this post I will show you how to disable a notification record which appears always after you type a configuration command. This notification causes your frustration when you want to configure anything on this switch and suddenly you see the following record:

[labnario]interface GigabitEthernet 0/0/1
[labnario-GigabitEthernet0/0/1]
Jan  1 2008 00:24:47+01:00 labnario DS/4/DATASYNC_CFGCHANGE:OID 1.3.6.1.4.1.2011.5.25.191.3.1 configurations have been changed. The current change number is 24, the change loop count is 0, and the maximum number of records is 4095.

You have such situation on Huawei S2300, S3300 and S5300 switches if you are logged by the console.

How to cope with it?

You have two ways to do this. The first is to disable it temporarily by the following commands:

<labnario>undo terminal monitor

or

<labnario>undo terminal trapping

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BFD process-interface-status vs. process-pst

BFD process-interface-status and process-pst are applicable only for single-hop BFD. Let’s assume that we have two routers directly connected through interface GE1/0/0.

process-interface-status

By associating BFD session status with interface status we can trigger fast route convergence. We can use this function only for BFD session that uses a default multicast IP address to detect the single-hop link. We can use association between BFD session status and interface status in the case, when transport devices exist on the link between the routers. As the actual physical path is segmented by transport devices, the routers on both ends need a long time to detect a fault that occurred on the link. The change of BFD status affects the protocol status of the interface and thus fast convergence is triggered. When the BFD session becomes DOWN, the correspondence interface status also goes to BFD_DOWN state, causing that this direct route is deleted from the routing table but the router can still forward BFD packets.

[Labnario] bfd
[Labnario-bfd] quit
[Labnario] bfd test bind peer-ip default-ip interface gigabitethernet 1/0/0
[Labnario-bfd-session-test] discriminator local 1
[Labnario-bfd-session-test] discriminator remote 2
[Labnario-bfd-session-test] process-interface-status
[Labnario-bfd-session-test] commit

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