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port security on Huawei switches

How to prevent unauthorized users from connecting their PCs to an enterprise network? How to prevent employees from connecting unauthorized devices to a LAN or moving their computers without permission?

Port Security is a Layer 2 feature, which can be enabled on an interface, to prevent devices with untrusted MAC address, from accessing a switch interface. When enabled, MAC address of the device connected to the port, is dynamically learned by the switch and stored in a memory (by default it is not aged out). Only this MAC address is then allowed to forward traffic over switch port (only one trusted MAC is allowed by default). Every different MAC address will cause the port to go into one of the following states:

  • Protect – packets coming from untrusted MAC address will be dropped,
  • Restrict – packets coming from untrusted MAC address will be dropped and SNMP trap message will be generated (default behavior),
  • Shutdown – port will be put into shutdown state.

Let’s configure  port security feature on a switch port and see, how it works.

<labnarioSW1>sys
Enter system view, return user view with Ctrl+Z.
[labnarioSW1]interface gi0/0/1
[labnarioSW1-GigabitEthernet0/0/1]port link-type access
[labnarioSW1-GigabitEthernet0/0/1]port-security enable

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Link Flapping Protection on Huawei switches

I have come across link flapping protection feature recently. It is available on S5700 switches. It looks like it is a new feature on Huawei switches. I had not met it in older hardware versions. That’s why I decided to write a few words about it. Unfortunatelly, although this command is available in Huawei network simulator eNSP, it does not work properly. But maybe you will have possibility check it on your real devices.

Port flapping (port going UP and DOWN continually) can be caused by a faulty cable, link failure, active/standby switchover, port hardware failure, etc. Frequent status changes on an interface can lead to:

  • STP topology recalculation and changes,
  • ARP entries updates,
  • dynamic routing instability and convergence problems.

All these issues can negatively affect switch performance and should be avoided.

Link Flapping Protection is a feature that can be implemented on an interface to solve problems caused by the flapping port or link. It checks the interface flapping frequency and link flapping detection interval. If the number of interface flapping times reaches the limit, in a specified period, the interface is shut down.

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error-down auto-recovery on Huawei switches

Some of you may know Cisco’s err-disable recovery feature, which allows to automatically bring a port from err-disable back to UP state. Huawei switches have similar functionality, which is called error-down auto-recovery.

There are five reasons a port can enter into error-down state:

  • BPDU protection
  • EFM threshold
  • EFM remote failure
  • Auto defend
  • Link flapping
  • MAC address flapping

Let’s take a look, how this feature works, in a network running STP, when BPDU protection is the reason that a port goes into DOWN state. If you are not familiar with BPDU protection feature, read my previous article “Protecting STP on Huawei switches”.

I have configured STP BPDU protection on the Ethernet 0/0/1 interface of labnarioSW1 switch as follows:

[labnarioSW1]int e0/0/1
[labnarioSW1-Ethernet0/0/1]stp edged-port enable
[labnarioSW1]stp bpdu-protection

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protecting STP on Huawei switches

As a continuation of the STP Root Protection feature I want to describe additional STP protection functions and show you, where these functions should be implemented, in a typical campus LAN environment.

BPDU Protection feature can be used to protect switches against STP BPDU attacks. It should be implemented on every switch, which has ports directly connected to end-user workstations. This is because we do not expect receiving STP BPDU from user workstations. When STP BPDUs are received on the edge port, STP topology recalculation occurs, causing network flapping. If the port is configured with BPDU Protection and the switching device receives STP BPDUs, then the port is placed into shutdown state, protecting STP topology from recalculation. By default BPDU Protection feature is disabled on Huawei switches. To enable it:

<labnario_sw>system-view 
[labnario_sw]interface Ethernet 0/0/1
[labnario_sw-Ethernet0/0/1]stp edged-port enable 
[labnario_sw-Ethernet0/0/1]quit
[labnario_sw]stp bpdu-protection

When a switch port is configured as a STP Edged and STP BPDU is received, the port is placed into shutdown state:

May 13 2013 20:17:00-08:00 labnario_sw%%01MSTP/4/BPDU_PROTECTION(l)[4]:This edged-port Ethernet0/0/1 that enabled BPDU-Protection will be shutdown, because it received BPDU packet!
[labnario_sw-Ethernet0/0/1]dis cur int e0/0/1
#
interface Ethernet0/0/1
 shutdown
 stp edged-port enable

[labnario_sw-Ethernet0/0/1]dis int eth0/0/1
Ethernet0/0/1 current state : Administratively DOWN
Line protocol current state : DOWN

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STP attack and Root Protection feature on Huawei switches

Spanning Tree protocol is a loop prevention mechanism in a bridged LAN. Every STP topology has its own root bridge, which determines how STP topology is calculated. The role of the root bridge is to act as a reference point in the network, so that all other switches can determine, how far each of their ports is from the root bridge. The port, which has the lowest path cost, is placed into a forwarding state. All other ports, that can lead to the root bridge, are blocked. Ports in the switching topology, which lead away from the Root Bridge, remain forwarding. You can recall STP operations reading the following article: “Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol on Huawei switch“.

How does the root bridge election process work?

The root bridge for each STP instance is determined by the bridge ID. The bridge ID consists of a configurable bridge priority and the MAC address of the bridge:

[Huawei]display stp
-------[CIST Global Info][Mode MSTP]-------
CIST Bridge         :32768.4c1f-ccd4-1c03

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