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Tag Archives: Huawei router

GRE on Huawei routers

Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) is introduced to encapsulate packets. Then these packets can be transmitted over an IPv4 network. GRE provides a mechanism to encapsulate packets of one protocol into packets of another protocol. This allows packets to be transmitted over heterogeneous networks. GRE also provides tunnels to transparently transmit VPN packets. When a device receives a packet that needs to be encapsulated and routed, it adds a GRE header to the packet and encapsulates it into another protocol such as IP. The packet is then forwarded by the IP protocol.

Let’s try to configure GRE tunnel between labnario_1 and labnario_3. All packets sent from PC_1 to PC_2, and vice versa, will be transmitted through the GRE tunnel.

Assure communication between routers in the network. It is omitted here.

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basic NTP configuration on Huawei devices

Network Time Protocol (NTP) is one of the oldest Internet protocols. It is used for clock synchronization between computer systems over packet-switched data networks.  Because it was designed to operate in variable-latency environment, NTP can achieve up to 1 millisecond accuracy in local area networks and tens of milliseconds when running over the Internet. NTP can be a very useful tool especially, when we want to correlate issues during network failures.

It is important to remember that NTP uses hierarchical system of levels of clock sources, which is called a stratum.

At the top of this hierarchy we have a stratum-0 devices, which act as a reference clocks. These are usually atomic clocks which has little or no delay associated with it. The reference clock typically synchronizes to the correct time (UTC) using GPS, Irig-B, etc.

Devices which are directly connected (usually via RS-232, not over a network path) to the stratum-0 servers are called stratum-1 servers. Stratum-2 server is connected to the stratum-1 server over a network path. Thus, a stratum-2 server gets its time via NTP protocol from a stratum-1 server. A stratum-3 server gets its time via NTP from stratum-2 server, and so on.

So the stratum level simply defines its distance from the reference clock.

How to configure NTP on Huawei devices?

Look at the lab topology:

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SNMPv2c configuration on Huawei devices

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is widely used for IP networks’ devices management and monitoring. Not only routers and switches can be managed using SNMP. It can be used with servers, modems, printers, etc. It is application layer protocol and is defined as IETF standard.

How SNMP works?

It operates based on the following components:

  • Network Management Station (NMS), sends SNMP requests to query managed devices and receives alarms send by these devices. NMS uses the MIB to identify and manage device objects.
  • Agent – process running on the managed device which is responsible for sending alarms to the NMS and processing requests received from NMS.
  • Managed device – a networking device on which the Agent process is running.

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screen length of terminal

24 – the default number of lines on one screen

<NE40E> display current-configuration
 sysname NE40E
 super password level 1 simple huawei1
 super password level 3 simple huawei
 super password level 15 simple labnario
 FTP server enable
 FTP acl 2000
 info-center source BFD channel 1 log level informational
 info-center loghost source GigabitEthernet0/0/0
 info-center loghost facility local4
 vlan batch 31 to 32 98 100
 hotkey CTRL_U "display ip interface brief"
 undo cluster enable
snmp-agent trap type base-trap
 load-balance ip-enhance all
  ---- More ----

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OSPF packets

As you probably know there are five types of OSFP packets:

All these packets, except Hellos, are sent only between adjacent routers.

LSA types

There are 5 common LSA types:

  • Router-LSA and Network-LSA calculate intra-area routes describing detailed link state information.
  • Network-Summary-LSA calculates inter-area routes describing brief routing information instead of link state information
  • ASBR-Summary-LSA describes how to reach ASBR
  • AS-External-LSA describes how to reach destinations outside AS.

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