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IP Routing

OSPF troubleshooting – neighbour relationship

Huawei NE40E OSPF basic configuration:
#ospf 1 router-id 1.1.1.1
 area 0.0.0.0
  authentication-mode simple plain labnario
  network 10.0.0.0 0.0.0.3
  network 1.1.1.1 0.0.0.0
#
How to display OSPF neighbour:
[NE40E-1]display ospf peer

         OSPF Process 1 with Router ID 1.1.1.1
                 Neighbors

 Area 0.0.0.0 interface 10.0.0.1(GigabitEthernet3/0/0)'s neighbors
 Router ID: 2.2.2.2          Address: 10.0.0.2
   State: Full  Mode:Nbr is  Master  Priority: 1
   DR: 10.0.0.2  BDR: 10.0.0.1  MTU: 0
   Dead timer due in 34  sec
   Retrans timer interval: 5
   Neighbor is up for 00:33:07
   Authentication Sequence: [ 0 ]

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OSPF packets

As you probably know there are five types of OSFP packets:

All these packets, except Hellos, are sent only between adjacent routers.

LSA types

There are 5 common LSA types:

  • Router-LSA and Network-LSA calculate intra-area routes describing detailed link state information.
  • Network-Summary-LSA calculates inter-area routes describing brief routing information instead of link state information
  • ASBR-Summary-LSA describes how to reach ASBR
  • AS-External-LSA describes how to reach destinations outside AS.

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ACL and PBR on Huawei CX600

Access Control List ACL

There are five types of ACLs on Huawei devices. Taking CX600 into consideration there are:

  1. Basic ACL (number ranges from 2000 to 2999) classifies packets based on a source address
  2. Advanced ACL (number ranges from 3000 to 3999) source address, destination address, source port number, destination port number, and protocol type
  3. Interface-based ACL (number ranges from 1000 to 1999) classifies packets based on the interface from which the packets are received
  4. Ethernet Frame Header ACL (number ranges from 4000 to 4099) classifies packets based on source and destination MAC addresses
  5. User ACL (number ranges from 6000 to 9999) classifies packets based on user groups.

The rules order depends on rule ID and rule matching order. There are two matching orders:

  • Configuration order – ACL rules are matched based on their configuration order. Rules IDs can be configured by user or generated by system automatically according to ACL step. By default the system generates 5 as the first rule ID. So the next rule ID will be 10, 15 and so on. Anytime you can configure rule ID manually, for example rule 1 and this rule will be placed before 5. You do not have to delete the whole ACL. Each time you can delete a specific rule without deleting the whole ACL.
  • Automatic order – the most precise rule is taking as the first. This is implemented through the comparison of wildcard masks. The system assigns rule IDs automatically.

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